Cabaret

The cabaret is a type of night club, originally from Paris, where people go to entertain themselves for an evening, eat, drink alcoholic beverages and enjoy a show. In Buenos Aires the cabarets appeared in the early 1910’s and are closely associated to the the history of tango.

A typical Buenos Aires cabaret of the golden age of tango was essentially a luxurious restaurants with a dance floor surrounded by tables and a bar. These restaurant-dancing were mostly located in the center of the city along avenida Corrientes. Some were frequented by men only with alternadoras, coperas and papirusas, women who were in charge of keeping men entertained and consuming. Others were designed for couples.

In the 30’s and 40’s each cabaret featured a particular ochestra típica which was the main attraction of the house and determined the prestige of each cabaret. For exemple, Juan d’Arienzo was associated to the Chanteclerc, Anibal Troilo to the Tibidabo and  Lucio Demare to El Casanova. Though they were the main attraction of the house, tango orchestras shared the space with jazz orchestras and other performers. On Saturdays they would be away, performing in popular dance halls across the city.

Some of those luxurious Buenos Aires cabarets include the Armenonville, Chantecler, Royal Pigall, Marabú and Palais de glace. More humble cabarets, los del Bajo, were located near the port and the actual Centro cultural Kirtchner. The Ocean Dancing, which featured Miguel Caló and Oswaldo Pugliese, was located at Leandro N. Alem 286.  Nearby was the Montmartre, el Royal, el Derby and Cielo de California where guests were greated by a doorman dressed up like a cowboy. [2]

Most Buenos Aires cabarets were closed when the popularity of tango and live music in general declined in the 1950’s and 60’s. They are evoqued in many tangos which were targetted by the prohibition as the word “cabaret” was banned along with lunfardo terms and inappropriate terms identified by the military government.  [2]

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[1] Tango: Cien anos de historia (Vol. II). Buenos Aires: Editorial Perfil, 1992. Print.

[2] Palacio, Jorge. Los cabarets de los anos cuarenta. Todotango. Online.   http://www.todotango.com/historias/cronica/163/Los-cabarets-de-los-anos-cuarenta/

Estribillista

The estribillista is the singer of the orchesta típica of the 1920’s and 1930’s. It must be distinguished from the cantor de orquesta (orchestra singer) of the golden age and solo tango singers.

The purpose of the estribillista is to perfom the estribillo (refrain) in such a way that the orchestra and the music remains at the center of attention. In the early 1920,s, singing was reserved to soloists such as Carlos Gardel and Ignacio Corsini. These singers used to perform with guitars or small band which would accommodate their voice and were not concerned with delivering a steady beat for dancing. Orquestas típicas were performing instrumental pieces only.

Francisco Canaro was the first director to incorporate a singer to his orchestra. In  invited Roberto Diaz to perform the estribillo with his orquestra. In his memoirs he says he felt like something was missing before that and soon he experimented with duos as well.

The challenges to integrate a singer to an orchestra were many at that time as there were no microphones to amplifying the voice of the singer which had to be powerful enough to accompany powerful instruments in noisy public spaces, cafes and nightclubs. Cone were used with were not estetically . Also it did not occurre to any director to slow down their pace or do major efforts to accomodate the poetry and voice of the singer until Anibal Troilo began working with Francisco FIorentino and appeared the orchestra singer in 1937. Besides the contribution of the estribillista was rarely credited. Singers were not considered full members of the orchestra and names often did not appear or recordings.

However the estribillista became popular and by the end of the 1920’s, well known soloists such as Charlo began performing with orchestras. Juan Carlos Thorry and Ernesto Famá worked with Osvaldo Fresedo, Félix Gutiérrez with Julio de Caro, Dante with D;arienzo, Teófilo Ibáñez with Firpo and Santiago Devin with Carlos Di Sarli.

The presence, status and recognition of the estribillistas continued to improve as electric technologies allowed for better performances. In the 30;s all orchestra were working with singers, some of which were associated with a particular one like Roberto Ray to Fresedo and others like Luis Diaz and Francisco Fiorentino worked with many.

But woulnt be fully integrated in the orchestra and music with full poetry until the end of the 1937 with Troilo and Fiorentino inventing the Cator de orquesta.

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García Blaya, Ricardo. El cantor del Tango: su evoluci’on en el tiempo – El estribillista.  Todotango. Online. http://www.todotango.com/historias/cronica/69/El-Cantor-del-Tango:-Su-evolucion-en-el-tiempo-El-estribillista/

Francisco Fiorentino

Francisco Fiorentino was tango musician, singer and director of the guardia nueva. He is famous for his work as a singer with the orchestra of Anibal Troilo and regarded as the first cantor de orquestra, the tipical singer of the golden age of tango.

Born in San Telmo in 1905 to a family of Italian immigrants, Francisco Fiorentino studied music at the conservatory of Minotto Di Cicco, former bandoneonista in the orchestra of Francisco Canaro. His older brother Vicente was also a musician and together, in their youth, they played in the cafes and theaters of Buenos Aires for a living.

Francisco Fiorentino was a talented musician and in 1924 he joined the orchestras of Francisco Canaro. These were the years when Canaro first incorporated singers into his orchestra and Fiorentino wanted to sing but Canaro did not think much of him as an estribillista at that time and Fiorentino went on working with other orchestras both as a bandoneonsita and estribillista in many ochestras including those of Juan Carlos Cobián, Juan D’Arienzo, Angel d’Agostino, Pedro Maffia and La típica Victor.

In the 1930’s Fiorentino he also worked as a solist and performed with Los Poetas del Tango.

Francisco Fiorentino may not have been the very first singer to perform with an orchestra. Other signers who worked with orchestras in those early year are Charlo and Roberto Díaz. However he was first to record a full song, “Serenata de amor” with the orchestra of Roberto Zerrillo, and more importantly he was first to fully integrate an ochestra tipica as a singer.

Fiorentino made his debut with Anibal Troilo on July 1st 1937. Together Troilo and Fiorentino recorded 62 tracks including “Yo soy el tango”, “Tinta roja”, “Fueye”, “Barrio de tango”, “Los mareados”, “Gricel” Garua, y “El bulín de la calle Ayacucho” and gave a second life to tango poetry and singing which was in need for new inspiration following the death of Carlos Gardel.

According to Blaya [2] Francisco Fiorentino was not technically a great singer. His voice and diction had certain limitations but he was good at conveying the emotion.

In 1944, Francisco Fiorentino leaves the ochestra of Troilo. He works with Orlando Goñi for a while and forms his own orchestra with Astor Piazzolla. In 1948 he joined the ochestra of José Basso. He made many good recordings including 22 with Astor Piazzolla but never reached the same had  with Troilo.

In the 1950,s he began traveling to Uruguay and interior of Argentina to perform. He died in a car accident in 1955 near Mendoza.

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[1] Gobello, José. Mujeres y hombres que hicieron el tango. Librerias Libertador, 2002. Print.

[2] Adet, Manuel. El Tano Francisco Fiorentino. El Litoral. Online. http://www.ellitoral.com/index.php/diarios/2011/11/05/escenariosysociedad/SOCI-04.html

[3] García Blaya ,Ricardo. Francisco Fiorentino. Todotango. Online.  http://www.todotango.com/creadores/biografia/149/Francisco-Fiorentino/

Los mareados (1942)

“Los mareados” is one of the most famous tango songs of  all times. The version we know today was written in 1942 by Enrique Cadícamo, at the request of Anibal Troilo, to the music of Juan Carlos Cobián.

One day in 1942, as he was beginning to perform with his orchestra at the cabaret Tibidabo, Anibal Troilo came to Enrique Cadícamo with an old instrumental recording by Osvaldo Fresedo. It was a 1922 recording of a tango by Juan Carlos Cobián entitled “Los dopados”. Troilo felt strongly inspired to rearrange and present it as soon as possible and he wanted Cadícamo to write the lyrics for him.

Cadícamo says he hesitated at first because the composer Juan Carlos Cobián was away in Mexico and had not given his consent for the project, but Troilo convinced him that it would be a winning situation for everyone if “Los dopados” resurfaced twenty years later as a hit. Cadícamo agreed to write the lyrics and changed the title to “Los mareados”.

Shortly after, the new song was premiered at the Tibidabo by the orchestra of Anibal Troilo with Roberto Fiorentino. “Los mareados” became one of Troilo’s greatest hits and the recording they made on June 15, 1942, remains among the great classics of the golden age.

When Juan Carlos Cobián returned to Argentina he could only be pleased to find his music was in vogue, but what Troilo and Cadícamo apparently didn’t know is that “Los Dopados” already had registered lyrics by Raul Doblas and Alberto Weisbach.

Bebe ese olvido que te ofrecen, que acallara tu almita herida, y asi podra, embrutecida, amar, beber, reir…

Busca del vicio el triste ensueño, bebe el olvido en su veneno, que si el beber hace olvidar, sera esa tu mayor felicidad.

Drink the forgiveness which isare  offered to you, which calms your soul, so you can, numbed, love, drink and laugh…

Go for the sad illusion of the vice, drink the forgiveness in its poison, and if drinking makes you forget, let that be your greatest happiness.

“Los Dopados” by Juan Carlos Cobian, Raul Doblas and Alberto Weisbach had been composed in 1922 for a play which was presented at the Teatro Porteño. It was recorded in 1923 by Roberto Diaz with the original lyrics and by Osvaldo Fresedo in instrumental version. Though “Los Mareados” are now one of the most famous Argentine songs of all times, the original lyrics by Doblas-Weisbach have fallen into oblivion.

In 1943, “Los Mareados” was banned by the new military government along with many other tangos which contain lunfardo terms or allusions to drunkness. Cadícamo wrote a new version entitled “En mi pasado”, which in spite of its beauty, and like many other pieces which were rewritten at that time, was hardly ever used or recorded.

When the prohibition was lifted in 1949, “Los Mareados” gained back its popularity. Since then it has been recorded by countless artists of all styles including Hector Mauré, Floreal Ruiz, Suzana Rinaldi, Raul Lavié, Astor Piazzolla, Mercedes Sosa with Roberto Goyeneche, Adriana Varela and pop singer Andrés Calamaro.

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[1] Del Priore, Oscar, and Irene Amachástegui. Cien tangos fundamentales. Buenos Aires: Aguilar, 1998. Print.

 

 

Enrique Cadícamo

Enrique Cadícamo was a writer, poet, playwright and prolific tango lyricist of the guardia nueva. He is the author of 5 plays and 6 books including “El desconocido Juan Carlos Cobián” and “La historia del tango en Paris“. He is also the author of more then 400 tangos, many of which are great classics such as “Los mareados”, “Tres esquinas”, “Madame Yvonne” and “Nostalgias”.

Enrique Cadícamo was born in General Rodríguez in the Province of Buenos Aires in 1900. When he was 6 years old his family moved to the city and he spent his youth in the neighborhood of Flores. His first job as a young man required that he spend long hours traveling to Palermo and this is how he began reading classics such as Victor Hugo and Ruben Darío. Later he worked for the archives of the Consejo national de educación and began writing poetry and plays which were presented in the theatres of Flores.

From theatre to tango was only a short step in those days as plays were often written to showcase new tango songs in the style of “Mi noche triste”. In 1924, Enrique Cadícamo wrote his first tango, “Pompas de jabón” which was recorded by Carlos Gardel in 1925. In 1929, he won first place in the 6th contest organized by Max Gluksmann with his tango “De todo te olvidas” and he began working with Juan Carlos Cobián among other composers. By the time Carlos Gardel left Argentina in 1933, he had recorded 23 of Cadícamo’s compositions, many of which were great hits.

One remarkable characteristic of Enrique Cadícamo as a poet was his ability to work with many different themes. For example, “Tres esquinas” is a masterful piece about life in the neigborhood in the line of Evaristo Carriego and Homero Manzi. “Al mundo le falta un tornillo” is an existentialist and socially engaged tango which became a precursor to “Cambalache” by Enrique Discepolo. On the romantic front, he is the author of “Los mareados” which became one of the most famous tango songs of all times.

Other well known tangos by Enrique Cadícamo include “Che papusa.. oi”, “Anclao en Paris”, “Niebla del Riachuelo”, “Garúa”, “La casita de mis viejos”, “Palais de glace”, “Tengo mil novias”, “Tres amigos”, “Muñeca brava”, “Compadrón” andPa que bailan los muchachos”.

Enrique Cadícamo remained professionally active until his death in 1999. He was 99 year-old. He received many prices in his lifetime including a Premio Konex in 1885. He was declared Ciudadano illuste de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires in  1987 and Personalidad Emerita de la Cultura Argentina in 1996. [1] In 2011 the pasaje Carabelas was renamed Paseo Enrique Cadícamo in his honour. [2]

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[1] Sorias, Gabriel. (2002) Los Capos del tango: Enrique Cadícamo. Online.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uvnBkWGe4Uc

[3]  “Cadicamo, en tiempo de homenaje”. In La Nacion, December 17, 2000. Online. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/45314-cadicamo-en-tiempo-de-homenaje

 

Garua (tango, 1943)

“Garua” is a 1943 tango by Anibal Troilo and Enrique Cadícamo. It was recorded by Troilo with Francisco Fiorentino for the label RCA Victor on august 4, 1943. Two days later, Pedro Laurenz recorded his own version with Alberto Podestá under the label Odeon.

“Garua” is the second of 3 tangos composed by Anibal Troilo with the lyrics of Enrique Cadicamo, the other two other being “Pa’ que bailen los muchachos” (1942) and “Naipe” (1944). According to Cadícamo, Troilo presented the music to him one night at the Tibidabo and asked if he could write the lyrics. As he walked home that night there was a very light rain or drizzle falling over him and this is where he conceived the first verses of his famous tango. [1]

¡Garúa! Solo y triste por la acera, va este corazón transido con tristeza de tapera.

Drizzle! Sad and lonely by the sidewalk, goes this hear striken with the sadness of an abandoned house.

Garua is a lunfardo term of Quechua origin which translates to “drizzle”. [4] The rains is a recurrent theme in tango and has been evoked directly or indirectly in many other pieces such as “El café de Los Angelitos”, “El ultimo café”, “Charlemos”, “Tarde gris”, and “La noche que te fuiste” as a symbol of loneliness.

It wasn’t long after that night when he walked back home under the drizzele that Cadícamo came back to el Tibidabo with “Garua” and just a few days later Troilo was rehearsing with Francisco Fiorentino.

The 1953 recording by Troilo and Fiorentino was followed by another one in 1962 by Troilo and Roberto Goyeneche who recorded two other versions with Raul Garello and Astor Piazzolla. Other well known interpretations of “Garua” include those of Hugo del Carril and Adriana Varela.

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[1] Del Priore, Oscar, and Irene Amachástegui. Cien tangos fundamentales. Buenos Aires: Aguilar, 1998. Print.

[2] Garúa. Tangos al Bardo, 2013. Online. http://tangosalbardo.blogspot.com.ar/2013/07/garua.html

[3] El tango y la lluvia. El Litoral, 2011. Online.  http://www.ellitoral.com/index.php/diarios/2011/08/20/escenariosysociedad/SOCI-02.html

[4] Diccionario lunfardo. Todotango. Online. http://www.todotango.com/comunidad/lunfardo/?i=G&s=all

 

Anibal Troilo

Aníbal Troilo, also known affectuously as Pichuco, Gordo or El bandoneon mayor de Buenos Aires, was a renown bandoneon player, composer and director of the golden age of tango. With his personal charisma, sensitivity and excellence of interpretation he became one of the major figures of tango history. As a composer he left 60 pieces, many of which are now  great classics such as “Barrio de tango” (1942), “Garúa” (1943), “María” (1945), “Romance de bario” (1947), “Sur” (1948), “Che bandoneon” (1950), “Responso” (1951), “La cantina” (1954), “La ultima curda” (1956), and ”Nocturno a mi barrio” (1969).

Troilo was born in 1914  in the neighbourhood of Abasto. He was the son of a butcher who died when he was 8 years old. As a child he was fascinated by the bandoneon, and though to buy such an instrument was a considerable expense for his mother, by age 10 he convinced her to buy him one. A year later he was performing in public for the first time in a bar next to the mercado Abasto.

Anibal Troilo was 14 years old when he formed his first quinteto. In 1929 he was invited to perform with Juan Maglio at the Café Germinal and in 1930 with Ciriaco Ortiz for the Sexteto Vardaro-Pugliese and the Orquesta los provincianos. In 1932 he joined the orchestra of Julio de Caro. Other major orchestras he worked with as a bandoneonista in the 1930’s include those of Angel D’Agostino, Alfredo Gobbi, La Típica Victor, Juan d’Arienzo, Luis Petrucelli and Juan Carlos Cobian.

In 1937 Troilo finally formed his own orchestra. He was 23 years old. He made his debut as a director in the cabaret el Marabú and was almost immediately hired to perform at the Café Germinal. These were the years when Juan D’Arienzo brought tango dancing back into fashion and tango orchestras were needed all over the city. One year later he signed a contract with Odeon but unfortunately was requested to record only two tracks under this label. This is why  “Comme il faut” and “Tinta verde” are the only recordings he have from his early years as a director until he began working with RCA Victor in  1941.

In 1942 Anibal Troilo was hired at the Cabaret Tibidabo, a restaurant-dancing which was located on Avenida Corrientes 1244. There he performed (season) with Francisco Fiorentino and Orlando Goñi, turning the place into one of the hot spots of the golden age where poets and muscians such as Homero Manzi, Pascual Contursi, Catúlo Castillo, César Vedani and José Razzano used to gather.

Anibal Troilo was the main attraction at el Tibidabo for over 10 years. He also appeared regularly on popular radio programs such as Ronda de ases throughout the 1940’s. In 1953 he left el Tibidabo to perform with Roberto Grela in the musical “El patio de la Morocha”. The establishment was demolished two years later as cabarets began closing and tango orchestras were dismembered in the late 1950’s.

Though tango was going through profound a crisis in the 60’s and 70’s, Troilo continued working with small bands, duos and giant orchestras. Along with Astor Piazzolla he became one of the pillars of the Vanguardia and continued renovating and performing until his death in 1975. He left and left 449 recordings with his orchesta típica and many more with other other bands and ochestras. From 1948 to 1976 he appeared in various movies including El tango vuelve a Paris”, “Mi noche triste”, and “Tango Argentino”.

One of the most significant contribution of Anibal Troilo in the golden age was to give a second life to tango poetry, which had lost ground following the death of Carlos Gardel in 1935. Troilo was also first to fully incorporate tango signers to his orchestra, working with the best of them including Fransicso Fiorentino, Alberto Marino, Floreal Ruiz, Edmundo Rivero, Roberto Rufino, Raúl Berón and Roberto Goyeneche.

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Gobello.

100 anos.

on tango history