Category Archives: Milonga

El esquinazo (tango, ~1900)

“El esquinazo” is one of the oldest tangos of the repertoire. It was composed by Ángel Villoldo around 1900 and is the archetype of the old tango-milongas of the guardia vieja. It had a phenomenal success in the cafes  of Buenos Aires where tango was making it’s debuts  at the turn of the 20th century and figures among the oldest tango recordings. This was the first great success of Villoldo before “El porteñito” and “El Choclo” in 1903.

According to Jose Gobello, “El esquinazo” is a lunfardismo meaning to let down or to dump someone. And so the lyrics by Carlos Pesce and Antonio Polito (A. Timarni) are about a man defiantly turning his back on a woman who disappointed him.

I care nothing for your love. Just keep hitting!

These words, combined with the peculiar knocking in the music, seem to have resulted in a habit of banging on tables and dishes during performance. In fact, the enthusiasm it generated grew to a point where an incident was reported to the police and “El esquinazo” was banned at the Lo de Hansen in 1902. It is said that the house was almost destroyed and a sign was posted by the owner saying “Permanently forbidden to perform El esquinazo. We beg you to be careful”.

Another indication of the popularity of “El esquinazo” is the fact that it figures among the oldest tango recordings. At a time when recording technologies were new and harldy available, “El esquinazo” was included in the repertoire of bands such as the Banda Española,  the Rondalla criolla and  the Orquesta internacional.

Less primitive recordings of “El esquinazo” include those of Roberto Firpo, Francisco Canaro, Juan D’Arienzo, Donato Racciatti, José Basso, Los Tubatangos, and Los Muchachos de antes.

“El esquinazo” is the archetype of the tango-milongas of the 2X4 era. This is the kind of tango Sebastián Piana “exhumed” from “old partitions” to produce “Milonga sentimental” in 1931. Therefore it is the prototype of the urban milonga we know today as a subgenre of tango music.

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Selles, Roberto. “El tango y sus dos primeras decadas (1880- 1900)” in La historia del tango: Primera epoca. Buenos Aires: Corregidor. 1977. Print.

Del Priore, Oscar, and Irene Amachástegui. Cien tangos fundamentales. Buenos Aires: Aguilar, 1998. Print.

Payador

Payadores traditionally were gauchos and poets who’s art consisted in improvising verses while playing the guitar.  They played a fundamental role in the gestation of tango music and poetry at the end of the 19th century when they came to the city as their life style in the country disintegrated.

The word payada is related to “palabra” in Spanish, which means “word”.  So the payador speaks with improvised verses, contemplating, philosophizing, arguing and commenting the facts of everyday life. In the background a milonga, cifra, cielito, estilo or other folk rhythm flowing from their guitar.

Payadores usually performed on their own, but some of them entered into duels, defying one another with verses until one fails to keep up with the argument. This is the payanda “a contrapunto”. The confrontation could last hours or days and build great prestige for those who excelled at it.

When the gaucho’s traditional lifestyle was disrupted in the 19th century, payadores came to the city to perform in circus, bars and theatres for a living. Their verses began reflecting the reality and anecdotes of life in the city and this is where the first foundation of tango poetry came from.

The intertwining between payada and tango from 1890 to 1920 was profound and had lasting effects. Payadores began using lunfardo terms and singing tangos while early tangos had titles evoking the country such as “El choclo” (The corncob), “El estribo” (The Stirrup)The milonga became one of the fundamental musical style in the gestation of tango and Carlos Gardel himself was an extension of the last urban payadores, performing folk songs as well as tango and always accompanied by a guitar.

Great payadores who are known for their contribution to tango as signers and composers are Gabino Ezeiza, Higinio Cazón, José María Silva and Arturo A. Mathon. These are the voices we hear in  the most primitive recordings of tango songs.

As recording technology continued to progress and proliferate, the art of improvising became less relevant. Tango grew into the predominant musical genre in the city and the payada definitely lost ground in the 1920’s.